De aprendiz a mercaderel factor en el comercio internacional inglés del siglo XVI

  1. Lanero Fernández, Juan J.
  2. Ortega Montes, Eduardo
Pecunia: revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales

ISSN: 1699-9495

Year of publication: 2007

Issue: 5

Pages: 145-180

Type: Article

DOI: 10.18002/PEC.V0I5.714 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openDialnet editor

More publications in: Pecunia: revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales


The appearance of factors was related to the new figure of sedentary merchants. Factors became necessary when a merchant increased the bulk of his operations and when they traded with various countries at a time. Factors living and working abroad were employed by societies, individual merchants or groups of merchants. A genuine agent could alternate his duties as a commissioned agent with his own trading activities. It was usual that apprentices played the role of factors towards the end of their period of apprenticeship. They were sent overseas in order to gain experience and complete their commercial education. An apprentice could not trade for his own without his merchant's permission who, to certain extent, was responsible for the apprentices' actions. The knowledge an agent had about a foreign market used to have an influence on the merchant's decision about which goods should be exported. Factors, apart from writing letters, should keep books of accounts, which implied a knowledge of bookkeeping, foreign currencies and bills of exchange. Foreign trade conditions increased factors' responsibilities and created new representation problems which have no equivalence in other commercial relations of the period.

Bibliographic References

  • Acts of the Privy Council of England, 1586-87.
  • Acts of the Privy Council of England, 1589-90.
  • Acts of the Privy Council of England, 1597-98.
  • ALBERTI, L. de and A.B.W. CHAPMAN (1909) "English Traders and the Spanish Inquisition in the Canaries", Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Third Series, III, pp. 237-253.
  • BISSON, Douglas R. (1993) The Merchant Adventurers of England: The Company and the Crown, 1474-1564. Newark: University of Delaware Press.
  • Calendar of the Manuscripts of Major-General Lord Sackville (1551-1612) Preserved at Knole, Sevenoaks, Kent, Cranfield Papers, Ed. A.P. Newton, London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1940.
  • Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series of the Reign of Elisabeth (1591-1594) Preserved in Her Majesty's Public Record Office, Ed. Mary Anne Everett Green, London: Longmans, Green, Reader and Dyer, 1867.
  • ELMHIRST, Edward Mars (1959) Merchants’ Marks. Ed. Leslie Dow. London: Publications of The Harleian Society.
  • FOSTER, Sir William, ed. (1931) The Travels of John Sanderson in the Levant, 1584-1602. With His Autobiography and Selections from His Correspondence. London: Printed for the Hakluyt Society.
  • FOSTER, Sir William,, ed. (1940) The Voyages of Sir James Lancaster to Brazil and the East Indies, 1591-1603. London: Printed for the Hakluyt Society.
  • [FULLER, Thomas] (1811) The History of the Worthies of England: Endeavoured by Thomas Fuller, First Printed in 1662. A New Edition, with a Few Explanatory Notes by John Nichols, 2 vols., London, Edinburgh & Perth: Printed for F. C. and J. Rivington et al..
  • GRASS, Norman Scott Brien (1918) The Early English Customs System: A Documentary Study of the Institutional and Economic History of the Customs from the Thirteenth to the Sixteenth Century. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
  • HANBURY, Harold Greville (1960) The Principles of Agency. London: Stevens & Sons Limited.
  • High Court of Admiralty: 1588, 1599.
  • High Court of Admiralty, Examinations: 1564, 1565, 1567, 1568, 1569, 1572, 1575, 1583, 1584, 1585, 1587, 1594.
  • LANE, Frederick C. (1944) Andrea Barbarigo, Merchant of Venice, 1418- 1449. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press.
  • LANERO FERNÁNDEZ, Juan J. (1995) De cómo los ingleses deben gestionar sus negocios en la península ibérica: The marchants avizo (1589), Trabajo de Investigación no publicado. Universidad de León.
  • LINGELBACH, W.E., ed. (1902; reprint 1971) The Merchant Adventurers, Their Laws and Ordinances. New York: B. Franklin.
  • LINGELBACH, W.E. (1902) "The Internal Organization of the Merchant Adventurers", Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 15, pp. 1-45.
  • MALYNES, Gerard (1622) Consvetvdo, Vel Lex Mercatoria, or The Ancient Law-Merchant. Diuided into three parts: According to the Essentiall Parts of Trafficke. Necessarie for All Statesmen, Iudges, Magistrates, Temporall and Ciuile Lawyers, Mint-men, Merchants, Marriners, and All Others Negotiating in All Places of the World. London: Printed by Adam Islip.
  • MENDENHALL, T.C. (1953) The Shrewsbury Drapers and the Welsh Wood Trade in the XVI and XVII Centuries. Oxford University Press.
  • OPPENHEIM, M., ed. (1902) The Naval Tracts of Sir William Monson, in six books. Printed for the Navy Records Society.
  • PEELE, James (1553) The maner and fourme how to kepe a perfecte reconyng, after the order of the moste worthie and notable accompte, of Debitour and Creditour.... London: Richard Grafton.
  • PEELE, James (1569) The Pathe waye to perfectnes, in th’accomptes of Debitour, and Creditour.... London: Thomas Purfoote.
  • RICH, E.E. (1937) The Ordinance Book of the Merchants of the Staple. Cambridge University Press.
  • SANTOYO, Julio-César (1974) "Thomas Nicholas y el cronista de Indias Agustín de Zárate. Comentarios lingüísticos e históricos sobre la traducción inglesa de 'La Conquista del Perú' (1581)", Boletín Sancho el Sabio, Año XVIII, Tomo XVIII, pp. 555-578.
  • SELLERS, M., ed. (1906) The Acts and Ordinances of the Eastland Company. London: Royal Historical Society.
  • STEVENS OF VERMONT, Henry (1886) The Dawn of British Trade to the East Indies as Recorded in Court Minutes of the East India Company, 1599- 1603.... London: Henry Stevens & Son.
  • WEDDINGTON, John (1567) A breffe instruction, and manner, how to kepe, marchantes bokes, of Accomptes, After the order of debitor and creditor.... Andwarpe: Petter van Kerberghen.
  • WILLAN, T.S. (1953) The Muscovy Merchants of 1555. Manchester University Press.
  • WILLAN, T.S. (1956) The Early History of the Russia Company, 1153-1603. Manchester University Press.
  • WILLAN, T.S. (1959) Studies in Elizabethan Foreign Trade. Manchester University Press.