Reliability and Validity of a Questionnaire for Assessing Self-Perceived Health-Related Fitness in Spanish Children

  1. Carlos Ayán Pérez 1
  2. Tania Fernández Villa 2
  3. Antía Duro Pichel 1
  4. Antonio José Molina de la Torre 2
  1. 1 Universidade de Vigo

    Universidade de Vigo

    Vigo, España


  2. 2 Universidad de León

    Universidad de León

    León, España


The Spanish Journal of Psychology

ISSN: 1138-7416

Year of publication: 2020

Issue: 23

Pages: 1-15

Type: Article

DOI: 10.1017/SJP.2020.27 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openOpen access editor

More publications in: The Spanish Journal of Psychology


Cited by

  • Scopus Cited by: 3 (29-05-2023)
  • Web of Science Cited by: 4 (04-06-2023)
  • Dimensions Cited by: 2 (28-02-2023)

JCR (Journal Impact Factor)

  • Year 2020
  • Journal Impact Factor: 1.264
  • Journal Impact Factor without self cites: 1.233
  • Article influence score: 0.393
  • Best Quartile: Q4
  • Area: PSYCHOLOGY Quartile: Q4 Rank in area: 68/77 (Ranking edition: SCIE)
  • Area: PSYCHOLOGY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Quartile: Q4 Rank in area: 106/140 (Ranking edition: SSCI)

SCImago Journal Rank

  • Year 2020
  • SJR Journal Impact: 0.443
  • Best Quartile: Q1
  • Area: Linguistics and Language Quartile: Q1 Rank in area: 195/1213
  • Area: Psychology (miscellaneous) Quartile: Q3 Rank in area: 137/285

Índice Dialnet de Revistas

  • Year 2020
  • Journal Impact: 0.140
  • Field: PSICOLOGÍA Quartile: C3 Rank in field: 62/111


  • Social Sciences: A
  • Human Sciences: A

Scopus CiteScore

  • Year 2020
  • CiteScore of the Journal : 1.9
  • Area: Language and Linguistics Percentile: 85
  • Area: Linguistics and Language Percentile: 84
  • Area: Psychology (all) Percentile: 46

Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)

  • Year 2020
  • Journal Citation Indicator (JCI): 0.42
  • Best Quartile: Q3
  • Area: PSYCHOLOGY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Quartile: Q3 Rank in area: 126/197
  • Area: PSYCHOLOGY Quartile: Q4 Rank in area: 69/85


(Data updated as of 28-02-2023)
  • Total citations: 2
  • Recent citations: 2
  • Relative Citation Ratio (RCR): 0.42


There is a need for developing tools aimed at assessing fitness in children, due to its relationship with health. This study is aimed at testing the reliability and the validity of a questionnaire designed for assessing self-perceived health-related fitness in Spanish children. The questionnaire was created based on the model of physical self-concept developed by Fox and Corbin (1989) who conceived four sub-domains: Sport competence, attractive body, strength and physical condition. A total of 283 children (mean age: 10.80 ± 0.69 years; 45.6% girls) answered the questionnaire twice, in order to determine its test-retest reliability. The results obtained in the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) and on a fitness battery were used to determine its validity evidence based on relations to other variables. Exploratory and factorial analyses were performed to check its validity evidence based on internal structure. The obtained results indicated that the questionnaire showed an accurate validity evidence based on internal structure and a very good test-retest reliability, Intraclass correlation coefficient: .88; 95% CI [.84, .90]. The questionnaire established moderate correlations with the IFIS questionnaire (ρ = –.51 to –.68) and the fitness level showed by the children (ρ = –.53). These findings indicate that the questionnaire can be a useful research tool for assessing self-perceived health-related fitness in children.

Bibliographic References

  • Abadie, B. R. (1988). Construction and validation of a Perceived Physical Fitness Scale. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 67, 887–892.
  • Adam, C., Klissouras, V., & Ravassolo, M. (1988). Eurofit. Handbook for the Eurofit Test of Physical Fitness. Council of Europe & Committee for the Development of Sport.
  • Arnheim, D., & Sinclair, W. A. (1979). The Basic Motor Ability Tests-revised. In Arnheim, D. & Sinclair, S. (Eds.), The clumsy child (2nd ed., pp. 119–144). Mosby.
  • Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. (2009). Exploratory structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 16(3), 397–438.
  • Atienza, F. L., Balaguer, I., & Moreno, Y. (2002). El perfil de autopercepciones para niños: Análisis de la validez factorial y la fiabilidad en la versión castellana. [Self-Perception Profile for Children: Factorial Validity and Reliability in the Spanish Version]. Psicothema, 14(3), 659–664.
  • Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1986). Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. The Lancet, 327, 307–310.
  • Carraro, A., Scarpa, S., & Ventura, L. (2010). Relationships between physical self-concept and physical fitness in Italian adolescents. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 110(2), 522–530.
  • Caspersen, C. J., Powell, K. E., & Christenson, G. M. (1985). Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: Definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports, 100, 126–131.
  • Catley, M. J., & Tomkinson, G. R. (2013). Normative health-related fitness values for children: Analysis of 85,347 test results on 9–17-year-old Australians since 1985. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(2), 98–108.
  • Colella, D., Morano, M., Bortoli, L., & Robazza, C. (2008). A Physical Self-Efficacy Scale for Children. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 36(6), 841–848.
  • Cossio-Bolaños, M., Vasquez, P., Luarte-Rocha, C., Sulla-Torres, J., & Gómez Campos, R. (2016). Assessment of self-perception of physical fitness and proposal for standards among Chilean adolescent students: The EAPAF study. Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría, 114(4), 319–328.
  • Costello, A. B., & Osborne, J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 10, Article 7.
  • Esnaola, I., Infante, G., & Zulaika, L. (2011). The multidimensional structure of Physical Self-Concept. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 14(1), 304–312.
  • Estevan, I., & Barnett, L. M. (2018). Considerations related to the definition, measurement and analysis of perceived motor competence. Sports Medicine, 48(12), 2685–2694.
  • Estevan, I., Utesch, T., Dreiskämper, D., Tietjens, M., Barnett, L. M., & Castillo, I. (2019). Validity and reliability of a pictorial scale of physical self-concept in Spanish children. RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte, 15(55), 102–118.
  • Fox, K. R., & Corbin, C. B. (1989). The Physical Self-Perception Profile: Development and preliminary validation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(4), 408–430.
  • Fernández, C., Lorenzo, H., Vrotsou, K., Aresti, U., Rica, I., y Sánchez, E. (2011). Estudio de crecimiento de Bilbao. Curvas y tablas de crecimiento (estudio transversal) [Study of growth in Bilbao. Curves and growth table (cross-sectional study)]. (Fundación Faustino Orbegozo Eizaguirre).
  • Ferrando, P. J., & Anguiano-Carrasco, C. (2010). El análisis factorial como técnica de investigación en Psicología [Factor analysis as a research technique in Psychology]. Papeles del Psicólogo, 31(1), 18–33.
  • Goñi, A., Ruiz de Azúa, S., & Rodríguez, A. (2006). Cuestionario de Autoconcepto Físico. Manual [Physical self-concept questionnaire]. EOS.
  • Gutiérrez, M., Moreno, J, A., & Sicilia, A. (1999, November). Medida del Autoconcepto físico: Una adaptación del PSPP de Fox (1990) [Measuring Physical Self-Concept: An adaptation of Fox's PSPP (1990)] Paper presented at the IV Congrés de les Ciénces de l’Esport, l’Educació Fisica i la Recreació. Lleida, Spain.
  • Hoffmann, A. F., Stover, J. B., de la Iglesia, G., & Fernández-Liporace, M. (2013). Correlaciones policóricas y tetracóricas en estudios factoriales exploratorios y confirmatorios [Polychoric and tetrachoric correlations in exploratory and confirmatory factorial studies]. Ciencias Psicológicas, 7, 151–64.
  • Hu, L.-t., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.
  • Jaakkola, T., & Washington, T. (2011). Measured and perceived physical fitness, intention, and self-reported physical activity in adolescence. Advances in Physical Education, 1, 16–22.
  • Jones, R. A., Hinkley, T., Okely, A. D., & Salmon, J. (2013). Tracking physical activity and sedentary behavior in childhood: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 44(6), 651–658.
  • Khine, M. S. (Ed.). (2013). Application of structural equation modeling in educational research and practice (Vol. 7). Sense Publishers.
  • Knapik, J. J., Jones, B. H., Reynolds, K. L., & Staab, J. S. (1992). Validity of self-assessed physical fitness. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 8(6), 367–372.
  • Koo, T. K., & Li, M. Y. (2016). A guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 15(2), 155–163.
  • Lintunen, T., Heikinaro-Johansson, P., & Sherrill, C. (1995). Use of the Perceived Physical Competence Scale with adolescents with disabilities. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 80(2), 571–577.
  • Lohbeck, A., Tietjens, M., & Bund, A. (2017). A short German Physical-Self-Concept Questionnaire for elementary school children (PSCQ-C): Factorial validity and measurement invariance across gender. Journal of Sports Sciences, 35(17), 1691–1696.
  • Maâmouri, L., Brisswalter, J., Jeddi, R., & Legros, P. (2007). Self-perception of health and fitness among French and Tunisian men and women. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 105(1), 227–235.
  • Mayorga-Vega, D., Viciana, J., Cocca, A., & De Rueda, B. (2012). Effect of a physical fitness program on physical self-concept and physical fitness elements in primary school students. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 115(3), 984–996.
  • Martínez-Aldao, D., Diz, J. C., Varela, S., & Ayán, C. (2019). Análisis de la validez convergente de la versión reducida en español del cuestionario de actividad física en el tiempo libre de Minnesota (VREM) y de la versión española del Cuestionario internacional de actividad física en personas mayores (IPAQ-E) [Analysis of the convergent validity of the Spanish short version of the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (VREM) and the Spanish version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in elderly people (IPAQ-E)]. Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra, 42(2), 147–157.
  • Mikkelsson, L., Kaprio, J., Kautiainen, H., Kujala, U. M., & Nupponen, H. (2005). Associations between self‐estimated and measured physical fitness among 40‐year‐old men and women. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 15(5), 329–335.
  • Monroe, C. M., Thomas, D. Q., Lagally, K., & Cox, A. (2010). Relation of college students' self-perceived and measured health-related physical fitness. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 111(1), 229–239.
  • Murcia, J., Gimeno, E., Vera, J., & Ruiz, L. (2007). Physical self-concept of Spanish schoolchildren: Differences by gender, sport practice and levels of sport involvement. Journal of Education and Human Development, 1(2), 1–17.
  • Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998). Mplus (Version 7.3) [Computer software]. Author.
  • Muthén, L. K., & Muthen, B. (2017). Mplus user's guide: Statistical analysis with latent variables. Muthén & Muthén.
  • Myer, G. D, Faigenbaum, A. D., Stracciolini, A. D., Hewett, T. E., Micheli, L. J., & Best, T. M. (2013). Comprehensive management strategies for physical inactivity in youth. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 12(4), 248–255.
  • Olsson, S. J. G., Ekblom‐Bak, E., Ekblom, B., Kallings, L. V., Ekblom, Ö., & Börjesson, M. (2018). Association of perceived physical health and physical fitness in two Swedish national samples from 1990 and 2015. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 28(2), 717–724.
  • Ortega, F. B., Ruiz, J. R., Castillo, M. J., & Sjöström, M. (2008). Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: A powerful marker of health. International Journal of Obesity, 32(1), 1–11.
  • Ortega, F. B., Ruiz, J. R., España-Romero, V., Vicente-Rodriguez, G., Martínez-Gómez, D., Manios, Y., Béghin, L., Molnar, D., Kurt, W., Moreno, L., Sjöström, M., & Castillo, L. (2011). The International Fitness Scale (IFIS): Usefulness of self-reported fitness in youth. International Journal of Epidemiology, 40(3), 701–711.
  • Ramírez-Vélez, R., Cruz-Salazar, S. M., Martínez, M., Cadore, E. L., Alonso-Martinez, A. M., Correa-Bautista, J. E., Izquierdo, M., Ortega, B. F., & García-Hermoso, A. (2017). Construct validity and test–retest reliability of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) in Colombian children and adolescents aged 9–17.9 years: The FUPRECOL study. PeerJ, 5, Article e3351.
  • Raudsepp, L., & Liblik, R. (2002). Relationship of perceived and actual motor competence in children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 94, 1059–1070.
  • Robinson, L. E. (2011). The relationship between perceived physical competence and fundamental motor skills in preschool children. Child: Care, Health and Development, 37(4), 589–596.
  • Sánchez-Lastra, M. A., Martínez-Lemos, I., Cancela, J. M., & Ayán, C. (2018). Cuestionarios de estimación de actividad física: revisión sistemática y análisis de sus propiedades psicométricas en población española mayor de 60 años. [Physical activity questionnaires: A systematic review and analysis of their psychometric properties in Spanish population over 60 years old]. Revista Española de Salud Pública, 92, Article e201805018.
  • Sánchez‐López, M., Martínez‐Vizcaíno, V., García‐Hermoso, A., Jiménez‐Pavón, D., & Ortega, F. B. (2015). Construct validity and test–retest reliability of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) in Spanish children aged 9–12 years. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 25(4), 543–551.
  • Serra-Majem, L., Bartrina, J. A., Pérez-Rodrigo, C., Ribas-Barba, L., & Delgado-Rubio, A. (2006). Prevalence and deteminants of obesity in Spanish children and young people. British Journal of Nutrition, 96, 67–72.
  • Tabachnick, B. G., Fidell, L. S., & Ullman, J. B. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (Vol. 5). Pearson.
  • Utesch, T., Bardid, F., Büsch, D., & Strauss, B. (2019). The relationship between motor competence and physical fitness from early childhood to early adulthood: A meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 49(4), 541–551.
  • Wang, J., & Wang, X. (2019). Structural equation modeling: Applications using Mplus. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Whitehead, J. R. (1995). A study of children’s physical self-perceptions using an adapted physical self-perception profile questionnaire. Pediatric Exercise Science, 7(2), 132–151.