Restauración del paisaje de la montaña española con ganaderíaUn ensayo en la Cordillera Cantábrica combinando pastoreo de caprino y poda de matorrales

  1. Álvarez Martínez, J. 3
  2. Errea Abad, M. P. 1
  3. Gómez-Villar, A. 2
  4. Lasanta, T. 1
  1. 1 Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología (CSIC)
  2. 2 Departamento de Geografía y Geología. Universidad de León
  3. 3 Departamento de Ingeniería Agrícola y Forestal. Universidad de Valladolid

ISSN: 0373-2568

Ano de publicación: 2015

Número: 170

Páxinas: 1-13

Tipo: Artigo

DOI: 10.3989/PIRINEOS.2015.170001 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openAcceso aberto editor

Outras publicacións en: Pirineos


Depopulation in Spanish mountain areas and livestock decrease, which traditionally grazed pasture lands, have favored an uncontrolled expansion of shrubs and, consequently, a significant increase of the fuel material and the fire risk, and the decrease of the landscape diversity. In the Cantabrian Mountain, Cytisus scoparius shows a large capacity to colonize abandoned lands and at present it is covering large areas, which were grazed before the abandonment. This paper analyzes the role of goats grazing, in combination with Cytisus scoparius pruning, to control the shrub spread, and how these actions are affecting the landscape configuration and fragmentation. The analysis was based on experimental plots, which combined two stocking rates: single (4.5 goats/ha/year) and double (9 goats/ha/year).The results show a small capacity of the sole application of pruning to limit the shrub expansion, since three years after the plants recovered the 90% of the initial coverage. The combination of pruning and single stocking rate delays the advance of shrubs, but in four years recover the 70.6% of its height and the 64% of its length. More effective is the double rate, as it allows controlling the expansion of Cytisus scoparius, since four years after the experiment the shrub branches only grew 10 cm in an average. Double stocking rate also preserves a more fragmented landscape than the single rate; it produces a land structure characterized by small patches, which is more interesting from an environmental point of view.

Referencias bibliográficas

  • Álvarez-Martínez, J., 1995. Dinámica sucesional tras el aban-dono y recuperación del matorral mediante pastoreo controlado. Experiencia en un sector de la monta-a de León. Universitat de Lleida, Servei de Publicacions. 357 pp., Lleida.
  • Antrop, M., 1993. The transformation of the Mediterranean landscapes: an experience of 25 years of observations. Landscape and Urban Planning, 24: 3-13.
  • Arnaez, J., Lasanta, T., Errea, M.P. & Ortigosa, L.M., 2011. Land abandonment, landscape evolution, and soil erosion in a Spanish Mediterranean. Land Degradation and Development, 22:537-550.
  • Bartolomé, J. Franch, J., Plaixats, J. & Seligman, n.G., 2000. Grazing alone is not enough to maintain landscape diversity in the Montseny biosphere reserve. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 77: 267-273.
  • Bartolomé, J., Plaixats, J., Piedrafita, J., Fina, M., Adrobau, E., Aixàs, A., Bonet, M. Grau, J. & Polo, L., 2011. Foraging behavior of Alberes cattle in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem. Rangeland Ecology Management, 64: 319-324.
  • Baur, B., Cremene, C., Groza, G., Rakosy, L., Schileyko, A.A., Baur, A., Stoll, P. & Erhardt, A., 2006. effects of abandon-ment of subalpine hay meadows on plant invertebrate diversity in Transylvania, Romania. Biological Conservation, 132: 262-273.
  • Bernués, A., 2007. Ganadería de monta-a en un contexto global. Evolución, condicionantes y oportunidades. Pastos, 37 (2): 133-175.
  • Bielsa, I., Pons, X. & Bunce, B., 2005. Agricultural abandonment in the North Eastern Iberian Peninsula: The use of basic landscape metrics to support planning. Journal of Envi-ronmental Planning and Management, 48(1): 85-102.
  • Burel, F. & Baudry, J., 2002. Ecología del paisaje. Conceptos, métodos y aplicaciones. Ediciones Mundi-Prensa: 353 pp. Madrid. PMid:12373399
  • Casasús, I., Bernués, A., Sanz, A., Villalba, D., Riedel, J.L. & Revilla, R., 2007. Vegetation dynamics in Mediterranean fo-rest pastures as affected by beef cattle grazing. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 121: 365-370.
  • Cascos Mara-a, C. 2011. La simplificación y la uniformidad crecientes en los paisajes ganaderos de la monta-a húmeda de Castilla y León. el ejemplo de babia y Luna. Polígonos. Revista de Geografía, 21: 149-178.
  • Collantes, F. G., 2004. El declive demográfico de la monta-a espa-ola (1850-2000) ¿Un drama rural? Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación. Secretaria General Técnica. Serie Estudios, 159: 364 pp., Madrid.
  • Errea, M.P., Arnáez, J., Ortigosa, L., Oserin, M., Ruiz-Fla-o, P. & Lasanta, T., 2007. Marginación y paisaje en una monta-a submediterránea (1956-2011): El ejemplo de Camero Viejo (Sistema Ibérico, La Rioja). Nimbus, 19-20: 53-71.
  • Farina, A., 2007. Principles and methods of landscape ecology towards a science of the landscape. Springer-Verlag, 2nd ed., New York, NY.
  • Forman, R.T.T. & Godron, M., 1986. Landscape Ecology. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Freemark, K.E. & Merrian, H.G., 1986. Importance of area and habitat heterogeneity to bird assemblages in temperature fo-rest fragments. Biological Conservation, 36: 115-141.
  • García-Ruiz, J.M. & López Bermúdez, F., 2009. La erosión del suelo en Espa-a. Sociedad Espa-ola de Geomorfología: 441 pp., Zaragoza.
  • García-Ruiz, J.M., Lana-Renault, N., Beguería, S., Lasanta, T., Regüés, D., Nadal-Romero, E., Serrano-Muela, P., López-Moreno, J.I., Alvera, B., Martí-Bono, C. & Alatorre, L.C., 2010. From plot to regional scales: Interactions of slope and catchment hydrological and geomorphic processes in the Spanish Pyrenees. Geomorphology, 120 (3-4): 248-257.
  • Gellrich, M., Baur, P., Koch, B. & Zimmermann, N.E., 2007. Agricultural land abandonment and natural forest regrowth in the Swiss mountains: A spatially explicit economic analy-sis. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 118: 93-108.
  • Genin, D., Villca, Z. & Abasto, P., 1994. Diet selection and utili-zation by llama and sheep in high altitude arid rangeland of bolivia. Journal of Range Management, 47: 245-248.
  • Gibon, A., 2005. Managing grassland for production, the environment and the landscape. Chalenges at the farm and the landscape level. Livestock Production Science, 96: 11-31.
  • Gibon, A., Sheeren, D., Monteil, C., Ladet, S. & Balent, G., 2010. Modelling and simulating change in reforesting mou-ntain landscapes using a social-ecological framework. Landscape Ecology, 25: 267-285.
  • Glasser, T.A., Landau, S.Y., Ungar, E.D., Perevolotsky, A., Dvash, L., Muklada, H., Kababya, D. & Walker, J.W., 2012. Foraging selectivity of three goat breeds in a Mediterranean shrubland. Small Ruminant Research, 102: 7-12.
  • Gómez García, D. Aguirre, A.J. & Lizaur Sukia, X., 2011. Recuperación del matorral tras el desbroce mecánico y quema en pastos de la sierra de aralar y belate (Navarra). en: López, C., Rodríguez, M.P., San Miguel, A., Fernández, F. y Roig, S. Pastos, paisajes culturales entre tradición y nuevos paradigmas del siglo XXI. Sociedad Espa-ola para el Estudio de los Pastos, 133-138 pp. Toledo.
  • Hart, S.P., 2001. Recent perspectives in using goats for vegetation management in the USA. Journal of Dairy Science, 74: 170-176.
  • Heineman, J.L., Simard, S.W., Sachs, D.L. & Mather, W.J., 2005. Chemical, grazing, and manual cutting treatments in mixed herb-shrub communities have no effect on interior spruce survival or growth in southern interior british Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management, 205: 359-374.
  • Hofmann, R.R., 1989. Evolutionary steps of ecophysiological adaptation and diversification of ruminants: comparative view of their digestive system. Oecologia, 78: 443-457.
  • Kienast, F., 1993. Analysis of historical landscape patterns with a Geographical Information System –a methodological outline. Landscape Ecology, 8: 103-118.
  • Koutsias, n., Martínez Fernández, J. & allgöwer, b., 2010. do fac-tors causing wildfires vary in space? evidence from geographi-cally weighted regression. GIScience and Remote Sensing, 47 (2): 221-240.
  • Lasanta, T., 1990. Tendances actuelles de l'organisation spatiale des montagnes espagnoles. Annales de Géographie, 551: 51-71.
  • Lasanta, T., 2010. Pastoreo en áreas de monta-a: Estrategias e impactos en el territorio. Estudios Geográficos, 268: 203-233.
  • Lasanta, T., Errea, M.P., Arnáez, J., Ortigosa, L. & Ruiz-Fla-o, P., 2009. Mountain pastures, environmental degradation, and landscape remediation: The example of a Mediterra-nean Policy Initiative. Applied Geography, 29: 308-319.
  • Lasanta, T., González-Hidalgo, J.C., Vicente-Serrano, S.M. & Sferi, E., 2006. Using landscape ecology to evaluate an alter-native management scenario in abandoned Mediterranean mountainous areas. Landscape and Urban Planning, 78: 101-114.
  • Lasanta, T., Nadal-Romero, E., Errea, P. y Arnáez, J. 2015. The effects of landscape conservation measures in changing landscape patterns: A case study in Mediterranean mountains. Land Degradation & Development.
  • Lasanta, T. & Vicente-Serrano, S.M., 2007. Cambios en la cu-bierta vegetal en el Pirineo aragonés en los últimos 50 a-os. Pirineos, 162: 125-154.
  • Lasanta, T., Vicente-Serrano, S.M. & Cuadrat, J.M., 2005. Mou-ntain Mediterranean landscape evolution caused by the abandonment of traditional primary activities: a study of the Spanish Central Pyrenees. Applied Geography, 25: 47-65.
  • López-Moreno, J.I., beguería, s., valero, b. & García-ruiz, J.M., 2003. Intensidad de avenidas y aterramiento de embal-ses en el Pirineo Central espa-ol. Ería, 61: 159-167.
  • Lovejoy, S., 1982. Area-perimeter relation for rain and cloud areas. Science, 216: 185-187. PMid:17736252
  • Magadlela, a.M., dabaan, M.e., bryan, W.b., Prigge, e.C., skousen, J.G., d'soura, G.e., arbogast, b.L. & Flores, G., 1995. brush clearing on hill land pasture with sheep and goats. Journal of Agro Grop Science, 174: 1-8.
  • Mandelbrot, b.b., 1983. The fractal geometry of nature. W.H. Freeman and Company, 495 pp., New York.
  • McGarigal, K., Cushman, S.A., Neel, M.C. & Ene, E., 2002. FRAGSTATS: Spatial pattern Analysis Program for catego-rical Maps. University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
  • Molinillo, M., Lasanta, T. García-Ruiz, J.M., 1997. Managing degraded landscape after farmland abandonment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Environmental Management, 21: 587-598. PMid:9175545
  • Montalvo, J., De Miguel, J.M., Schmitz, M.F., García-Criado, b. & Pineda, F.d., 1998. Calidad de la hierba y sucesión se-cundaria en un pastizal mediterráneo. Monografías del Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología, 4: 837-846.
  • Montserrat, P., 2008. Ecología del pasto pirenaico. Un panora-ma general. En: F. Fillat, R. García-González, D. Gómez & R. Reiné, 2008. Eds. Pastos del Pirineo CSIC y Diputación de Huesca, 1-4 pp., Huesca.
  • Mottet, A., Ladet, S., Coque, N. & Gibón, A., 2006. Agricultu-ral land-use change and its drivers in mountain landscapes: A case study in the Pyrenees. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 114: 296-310.
  • Narjisse, H., 1990. Les resources sylvo-pastorales en milieu mé-diterranéen. En: H. Narjisse & A. Kabbli, Eds: L' élevage dans les systèmes cerealières méditerranéens Pudoc, Wage-ningen (Netherland), 353-393 pp.
  • Nogués-Bravo, D., 2006.Assessing the effects of environmental and anthropogenic factor on land-cover diversity in a Medi-terranean mountain environment. Area, 38(4): 432-444.
  • Olsson, E.G.A., Austrheim, G. & Grenne, S.N., 2000. Landsca-pe change patterns in mountains, land use and environmen-tal diversity, Mid-Norway 1960-1993. Landscape Ecology, 15: 155-170.
  • Ortu-o, S.F. & Martín Fernández, A.J., 2006. Forest externali-ties, demography and rural development in inland Spain. Forest Policy and Economics, 8: 109-122.
  • Papadakis, J., 1966. Climates of the world and their agricultural potentialities. buenos aires.Puentes Gra-a, M.A., 1984. Estrategias de regeneración del tojo tras el incendio. Memoria de Licenciatura. Universidad de Santiago de Compostela.
  • Pueyo, Y. & Beguería, S., 2007. Modelling the rate of secondary succession after farmland abandonment in a Mediterranean mountain area. Landscape and Urban Planning, 83: 245-254.
  • Rescia, A.J., Pons, A., Lomba, I., Esteban, C. & Dover, J.W., 2008. Reformulating the socio-ecological system in a cultural rural mountain landscape in the Picos de Europa region (Northern Spain). Landscape and Urban Planning, 28: 23-33.
  • Riedel, J.L., 2007. Bases para la gestión del Parque Natural de la Sierra y ca-ones de Guara: interacciones entre la ganadería y la dinámica de la vegetación. Tesis Doctoral. Universidad de Zaragoza: 215 pp., Zaragoza.
  • Rivas Martínez, S., Gandullo, J.M., Allúe, J.L., Montero De Burgos, J.L. & González Rebollar, J.L., 1987. Memoria del mapa de series de vegetación de Espa-a. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación, Icona, Serie Técnica: 268 pp., Madrid.
  • Robert, M. & Saugier, B., 2003. Contribution des écosystèmes con-tinentaux à la séquestration du carbone. C.R. Geoscience, 335: 557-595.
  • ruiz Mirazo, J., 2011. environmental benefits of extensive li-vestock farming: wildfire prevention and beyond. Options Méditerranéennes, 100: 75- 82.
  • Ruiz Mirazo, J., Robles, A.B. & González Rebollar, J.L., 2011. Two-year evaluation of fuelbreaks grazed by livestock in the wildfire prevention program in Andalusia (Spain). Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 141: 13-22.
  • Suárez-Seoane, S., 1998. Efectos ecológicos derivados del abandono de tierras de cultivo en la provincia de León (municipio de Chozas de Abajo). Tesis Doctoral. Universidad de León-INRA SAD Armorique: 281, Rennes.
  • Sayadi, S., González-Roa, M.C. & Calatrava-Requena, J., 2009.Public preferences for landscape features: the case of agricultural landscape in mountainous Mediterranean areas. Land Use Policy, 26: 334-344.
  • Suárez-Seoane, S., Osborne, P.E. & Baudry, J., 2002. responses of birds of different biogeographic origins and habitat requirements land abandonment in Northern Spain. Biological Conservation, 105: 333-344.
  • Tasser, E., Walde, J., Tappeiner, U., Teutsch, A. y Noggler, W., 2007. Land-use changes and natural reforestation in the Eas-tern Central Alps. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 118: 115-129.
  • Torrano, L. & Valderrábano, J., 2005. Grazing ability of Euro-pean black pine understory vegetation by goats. Small Ru-minant Research, 58: 253-263.
  • Trias, A., 1996. Control biológico del crecimiento del sotobos-que con caprinos. Pastos, 26: 77-88.Valderrábano, J. & Torrano, L., 2000. The potential for using goats to control Genista scorpius shrubs in European black pines stands. Forest Ecology and Management, 126: 377-383.
  • Vanslemsbrouck, I., Van Huylenbroeck, G. & Van Meensel, J., 2005. Impact of agriculture on rural tourism: a hedonic pri-cing approach. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 56: 17-30.
  • Vila Subirós, J., Ribas Palom, A., Varga Linde, D. & Llausàs Pascual, A., 2009. Medio siglo de cambios paisajísticos en la monta-a mediterránea. Percepción y valoración social del paisaje de la Alta Garrotxa. Pirineos, 164: 69-92.
  • Weng, Y.C., 2007. Spatio-temporal changes of landscape pattern in response to urbanization. Landscape and Urban Planning, 81: 341-353.