Informe del Comité Científico de la Agencia Española de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición (AESAN) sobre Ingestas Nutricionales de Referencia para la población española

  1. Carlos Alonso Calleja
  2. Montaña Cámara Hurtado
  3. Álvaro Daschner
  4. Pablo Fernández Escámez
  5. Carlos Manuel Franco Abuín
  6. Rosa María Giner Pons
  7. Elena González Fandos
  8. María José González Muñoz
  9. Esther López García
  10. Jordi Mañes Vinuesa
  11. Sonia Marín Sillué
  12. José Alfredo Martínez Hernández
  13. Francisco José Morales Navas
  14. Victoria Moreno Arribas
  15. María del Puy Portillo Baquedano
  16. Magdalena Rafecas Martínez
  17. David Rodríguez Lázaro
  18. Carmen Rubio Armendáriz
  19. María José Ruiz Leal
  20. Pau Talens Oliag
Journal:
Revista del Comité Científico de la AESAN

ISSN: 1885-6586

Year of publication: 2019

Issue: 29

Pages: 43-68

Type: Article

More publications in: Revista del Comité Científico de la AESAN

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Abstract

The nutritional reference intake levels for a population allow the development of dietary recommendations that ensure a balanced nutritional contribution for the maintenance of good health, as well as for the development of nutritional policies that allow the prevention of chronic and deficiency diseases. In the case of Spain, the last available update of the Reference Dietary Intakes was carried out in 2010 by the Spanish Federation of Nutrition, Food and Dietetics Societies (FESNAD). At European level, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has published Dietary Reference Values between 2010 and 2017, and other countries have also updated their nutritional references over the last decade. The estimation of new nutritional reference intakes for the Spanish population, has followed a methodology that includes searching for reference intakes published by official international organisations, collecting data updated after 2010 and the harmonisation of recommendations by sex and age ranges. Finally, for each nutrient, vitamin or mineral, the nutritional reference intakes values for a healthy population have been determined by applying a decision-making algorithm based on that of FESNAD. In the case of macronutrients and energy, those established by EFSA are accepted. The document establishes nutritional reference intakes for 15 minerals: calcium, chlorine, chromium, copper, fluorine, phosphorus, iron, iodine, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, selenium, sodium and zinc, and 13 vitamins: vitamin A, vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B9 (dietary equivalents of folate), vitamin B12 (cobalamin), biotin, vitamin C, vitamin D , vitamin E (α-tocopherol) and vitamin K. These nutritional reference intakes are based on healthy population data; therefore, they do not cover the specific demands of cases in which there are altered physiological needs and metabolic dysfunctions. The existing individual genetic, anthropometric and physiological variation, as well as physical activity, are only incompletely taken into account when estimating individual nutrient requirements. The use of these reference values at individual level requires the consideration of the existence of external and intrinsic factors to the person (sociocultural, nutritional, physiological or even genetic characteristics), as well as the bioavailability and interaction of nutrients, necessary for the adaptation of personal requirements. Implementing these nutritional recommendations in daily practice must be accompanied by dietary recommendations, expressed in terms of food consumption. However, these dietary recommendations must consider compliance with nutritional requirements, bearing in mind the population’s specific sociocultural factors. revista del comité científico nº 29 46 In short, the nutritional reference intakes have different applications and must be updated periodically in order to implement them in the assessment of the population’s nutritional status; to develop nutritional and agricultural policies; to design food guides, as well as to develop new products that consider the nutritional needs of specific population groups (children, the elderly, infants, etc.). Other challenges on the horizon include considering the possibility of including nutritional reference intakes for chronically ill people, as well as treating toxicological aspects associated with disproportionate nutrient intakes.