Incidence of injuries in competition of Leonese wrestling and associated factors (2005–2015)

  1. Vicente Martín
  2. María J. Blasco
  3. Martí Casals
  4. Tania Fernández Villa
  5. Antonio José Molina de la Torre
  6. Francisco V. Martínez
  7. Arturo Martín
  8. Klaus Langohr
  9. Carlos Ayán Pérez
Apunts: Medicina de l'esport

ISSN: 1886-6581 0213-3717

Year of publication: 2018

Volume: 53

Issue: 199

Pages: 105-112

Type: Article


More publications in: Apunts: Medicina de l'esport

Sustainable development goals


Introduction. Traditional wrestling is considered a cultural heritage of humanity and it should be protected. The study of injuries and their associated factors can be useful to protect this heritage. The present study has as its aim an analysis of the incidence of injuries and the associated factors in competition of a traditional wrestling modality, “Leonese wrestling” (LW). Material and methods.Observational, prospective cohort study that collected injuries during the summer seasons from 2005 through 2015. Incidence rates of injuries were calculated by 1000 athlete exposures (AEs) and as a function of age at initiation in LW, mid-season age, regularity or those who participated in the competitions of each season, winner type, and weight category. At the multivariate level, a generalized linear mixed model was used assuming the frequency of the injuries followed a Poisson distribution. Results. A total of 308 wrestlers and 406 injuries were reported in 31,970 AEs. The incidence of injuries per 1000 AES was 3.0 (serious), 6.7 (moderate and serious) and 12.7 (total injuries registered). Higher incidence was observed among those who: were no regulars (IRR=1.076; CI: 0.846–1.368), were considered non-winner type and started as teenager vs child (IRR=1.115; CI: 0.856–1.452). Non-winner type wrestlers were at much higher risk of injuries in the semi heavy and heavy weight categories.Conclusions. The incidence of injuries in LW is consistent with that incidence expected in combat sports. Showing a low regularity, having started late in their practice, showing a non-winning profile and competing in the heavy weight category are injury risk factors for LW wrestlers.

Funding information


Bibliographic References

  • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Collective consultation in view of proposing an International. (2006), Available at: [accessed 03.06.17]
  • D. Sayenga. The problem of wrestling ‘styles’ in the modern Olympic Games: a failure of Olympic philosophy. Citius Altius Fortius Los Angeles, 3 (1995), pp. 19-30
  • Federación Territorial de Castilla y León. Estatutos de la Federación de Lucha de Castilla y León. Available at: [accessed 07.06.17].
  • V. Martin, T. Fernández, C. Ayán, A.J. Molina, H. García, M.J. Álvarez, et al. A success story: new rules and fewer injuries in traditional Leonese Wrestling (2006–2012). Apunts Med Esport, 48 (2013), pp. 55-61
  • Territorial Federation of Castilla and Leon of Wrestling. Sport regulations of Leonese Wrestling. (2005), Available at: [accessed 01.07.17]
  • C. Ayán, A.J. Molina, H. García, G. González, M.J. Álvarez, T. Fernández, et al. Efecto de una modificación reglamentaria en la incidencia de lesiones en lucha leonesa. Apunts Med Esport, 45 (2010), pp. 17-22
  • Z. Lin, Y. Chen, F. Chia, H.J. Wu, L.W. Lan, J.G. Lin. Episodes of injuries and frequent usage of traditional Chinese medicine for Taiwanese elite wrestling athletes. Am J Chin Med, 39 (2011), pp. 233-241 | Medline
  • M. Sokolowski, A. Kaiser, U. Czerniak, M. Tomczak, G. Breczewski. Wrestlers’ health – biological, behavioural and axiological aspects. Arch Budo, 8 (2012), pp. 37-43
  • L. Engebretsen, R. Bahr, J.L. Cook, W. Derman, C.A. Emery, C.F. Finch, et al. The IOC Centres of Excellence bring prevention to Sports Medicine. Br J Sports Med, 48 (2014), pp. 1270-1275 | Medline
  • G. Jarret, J. Orwin, R. Dick. Injuries in collegiate wrestling. Am J Sports Med, 26 (1998), pp. 674-680 | Medline
  • C. Fuller, J. Ekstrand, A. Junge, T.E. Andersen, R. Bahr, J. Dvorak, et al. Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures in studies of football (soccer) injuries. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 16 (2006), pp. 83-92 | Medline
  • R. Dick, J. Agel, S. Marchall. National collegiate athletic association injury surveillance system commentaries: introduction and methods. J Athl Train, 42 (2007), pp. 173-182 Medline
  • World Medical Association. Word Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. JAMA, 310 (2013), pp. 2191-2194 | Medline
  • B.M. Bolker, M.E. Brooks, C.J. Clark, S.W. Geange, J.R. Poulsen, M.H. Stevens, et al. Generalized linear mixed models: a practical guide for ecology and evolution. Trends Ecol Evol, 24 (2009), pp. 127-135 | Medline
  • M. Casals, J. Martinez. Modelling player performance in basketball through mixed models. Int J Perform Anal Sport, 13 (2013), pp. 64-82
  • N. Bullock, W. Hopkins. Methods for tracking athletes’ competitive performance in skeleton. J Sports Sci, 27 (2009), pp. 937-940 | Medline
  • J. Sampaio, E. Drinkwater, N. Leite. Effects of season period, team quality, and playing time on basketball players’ game-related statistics. Eur J Sport Sci, 10 (2010), pp. 141-149
  • B. Bu, H. Haijum, L. Yong, Z. Chaohui, Y. Xiaoyuan, M.F. Singh. Effects of martial arts on health status: a systematic review. J Evid Based Med, 3 (2010), pp. 205-219 | Medline
  • K. Hefferon, N. Mutrie. Physical activity as a ‘stellar’ positive psychology intervention. Oxford handbook of exercise psychology, pp. 209-216
  • D. Caine, K. Young, W. Howe. Wrestling. Epidemiology of injury in Olympic sports,
  • L. Engebretsen, T. Soligard, K. Steffen, J.M. Alonso, M. Aubry, R. Budgett, et al. Sports injuries and illnesses during the London Summer Olympic Games 2012. Br J Sports Med, 47 (2013), pp. 407-414 | Medline
  • B. Shadgan, B. Feldman, S. Jafari. Wrestling injuries during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Am J Sports Med, 38 (2010), pp. 1870-1876 | Medline
  • C.M. Green, M.J. Petrou, M.L. Fogarty-Hover, C.G. Rolf. Injuries among judokas during competition. Scand J Med Sci Sport, 17 (2007), pp. 205-210
  • G. James, W. Pieter. Injury rates in elite judokas. Biol Sport, 20 (2003), pp. 25-32
  • H. Herrero, J. Salinero, J. Del Coso. Injuries among Spanish male amateur soccer players: a retrospective population study. Am J Sports Med, 42 (2014), pp. 78-85 | Medline
  • E. Pocecco, G. Ruedl, N. Stankovic, S. Sterkowicz, F.B. Del Vecchio, C. Gutiérrez-García, et al. Injuries in judo: a systematic literature review including suggestions for prevention. Br J Sports Med, 47 (2013), pp. 1139-1143 | Medline
  • C. López. El entrenamiento en los deportes de lucha. Federación Territorial de Lucha, (2000),
  • K. Powell, A. Paluch, S. Blair. Physical activity for health; What kind? How much? How intense? On top of what?. Annu Rev Public Health, 32 (2011), pp. 349-365 | Medline
  • L. Mustelin, A. Latvala, K.H. Pietiläinen, P. Piirilä, A.R. Sovijärvi, U.M. Kujala, et al. Associations between sports participation, cardiorespiratory fitness, and adiposity in young adult twins. J Appl Physiol, 110 (2011), pp. 681-686 | Medline
  • J.J. Knapik, M.A. Sharp, M. Canham-Chervak, K. Hauret, J.F. Patton, B.H. Jones. Risk factors for training-related injuries among men and women in basic combat training. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 33 (2001), pp. 946-954 Medline
  • N. Webborn. Lifetime injury prevention: the sport profile model. Br J Sports Med, 46 (2012), pp. 193-197 | Medline
  • E.E. Yard, C.L. Collins, R.W. Dick, R.D. Comstock. An epidemiologic comparison of high school and college wrestling injuries. Am J Sports Med, 36 (2008), pp. 57-64 | Medline
  • T.R. Zazryn, P.R. McCrory, P.A. Cameron. Injury rates and risk factors in competitive professional boxing. Clin J Sport Med, 19 (2009), pp. 20-25 | Medline
  • W. Van Mechelen, H.C.G. Hlobil, H. Kemper. Incidence, severity, aetiology and prevention of sports injuries. Sports Med, 14 (1992), pp. 82-99