Evaluación de riesgos psicosociales en los trabajadores de la industria de la limpieza

  1. Pedro Miguel Dinis Fernandes Gomes Carrana
Supervised by:
  1. Leonor Calvo Galván Director
  2. Marta Jorge de Vasconcelos Pinto Director

Defence university: Universidad de León

Year of defence: 2016

Committee:
  1. Estanislao de Luis Calabuig Chair
  2. Emilía Graça Dourado Telo Ferraz Pereira André Secretary
  3. Rafael Ruiz Calatrava Committee member
Department:
  1. BIODIVERSIDAD Y GESTIÓN AMBIENTAL

Type: Thesis

Abstract

This study was motivated by the question: How do the workers in the cleaning industry in Portugal perceive psychosocial risks associated with the performance of their duties? This question refers to the general objective of evaluating the level of risk perceived by workers. Specifically, it aims i) to measure the level of risk perceived by workers and ii) to describe these perceptions in order to be able to build a script reflection lines on possible measures to manage workers' exposure to risk during the performance of their duties in the workplace. To this end, we used the assessment tool FPSICO, built for official use of the National Institute of Seguridad and Hygiene en el Trabajo, in five companies specialized in cleaning that represent a significant share both in terms of turnover as in number of workers in the sector. The results showed that in eight of the nine factors evaluated, workers in cleaning sector in Portugal mainly realize appropriate risk situations. The only value mostly perceived as inadequate, was recorded on Participation/Supervision factor (PS), which refers to the power of decision on the job and on concrete tasks. The calculation of average levels of perceptions showed that, apart from this factor, the factors Autonomy (AU) and Paper Performance (DR) have average levels higher than the average obtained in the whole factors. This trilogy suggests that workers perceive high levels of risk related situations especially about their freedom for decide on specific aspects of the work, which is constrained by the apparently strict supervision of their duties, which leads workers to question their role in the organization. We conclude that the perception of psychosocial risk by cleaners working in Portugal reveals a tensional structure among the factors associated in accordance to the Job Demands-Control model, in which also interfere the elements Support and Resources, revealed by the workers’ perception of need for support from supervisors regarding essentially the quest for recognition of their work and their role. Apparently, this quest is a reaction to the restrictions workers feel in their autonomy in participating in the decision-making processes which define the tasks they perform. This reaction is presented as a means of claiming a relative authority that allows workers feel better in their role.